The Emperor With No Clothes

Jesus Never Existed – The Chosen People

email the author
Kenneth Humphreys



Home       Section      Complete list of articles       Search   



'Sea Peoples' & Philistines
1200 - 1000 BC (20th dynasty). Where are the Israelites?

1200 no israelites

Stock villains of the Old Testament, the Philistines actually established an Iron Age, city-based civilization: Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron. It was vastly superior to the nomadic culture of the 'hapiru' slave-traders and subsistence farmers of the hill country.

Gaza, for example, originally Egyptian, was a walled city of about 200 acres, considerably larger than any contemporary settlement in the interior.






solomon's  women

Solomon - too fond of those 'foreign' women





New Evidence of "Solomon" – from Assyria!

Lower portion of stele of a Royal Assyrian Shamshi-Adad V (824-811 BC).

Cuneiform inscription confirms "cedars of Lebanon" cut for temple of the god Shulmânu.

(Private Collection, Switzerland)

Fringed robe, sceptre ...

"I ascended the Lebanon mountains and cut down the mighty beams of cedar. At that time I carried those cedars from Lebanon and at the gate of the temple of Shulmânu, my lord, I laid them down.

The old temple which Shalmaneser, my father, had built, had become decrepit, and I, in my skill, rebuilt that temple from its foundations to its pinnacles.

The beams of cedar from Lebanon I laid on it.

When this temple becomes old and decrepit, may a future prince renew its decrepit parts and return the inscription to its place."


Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC) was named for the god Shulmânu-Asharêd ("shulmânu is foremost").

Shalmânu is the Assyrian equivalent of Suleiman and thus Solomon.










Foolish harlot opts for half a dead baby – proves to all Israel 'wisdom' of Solomon

splitting a baby

"For he was wiser than all men ... and his fame was in all nations round about."
(1 Kings 4.31)

If Solomon was so wise, how could he land up worshipping the wrong gods?













Solomon the Builder?

solomon builds

1 Kings would have us believe that Solomon used 'costly stone' and the best timber to build:

Lavish Temple (7 years in construction)
Showplace Jerusalem (built by a 3 month levy on all Israelites plus 150,000 Canaanite slaves)
Magnificent Palace (& another for his Egyptian Queen!)
"House of the Forest of Lebanon" military HQ
"Hall of Pillars" Auditorium
"Hall of Judgement" Law Court
Fortress cities of Megiddo, Hazor & Gezer
Store Cities

Port of Ezion-Geber



Strange how not a single stone of this vast catalogue of construction is unequivocally identified and agreed by archaeologists!










What a Hebrew Army! Israel's armed might EIGHT times that of Imperial Rome!

"And Joab gave up the sum of the number of the people unto the king; and there were in Israel eight hundred thousand valiant men that drew the sword; and the men of Judah five hundred thousand men." – (2 Samuel 24.9)

(1 Chronicles 21:5 puts the number even higher!)


Rome, at the height of its power, defended the entire empire with 28 legions of 6,000 troops.








Real, Not Fable

Avdat (Oboda) – Nabataean city in the Negev, destroyed by the Hasmonean king Alexander in the 1st century BC.

Rebuilt to become a prosperous Roman/Byzantine city for several centuries.




Supposedly, an Israelite empire flourished in the 10th century BC, during a time of temporary weakness of both Assyria and Egypt. Yet the fabled empire of David and Solomon remains just that: a fable, unsupported by any evidence – and empires normally leave a great deal of evidence. Archaeology is unequivocal: there was never the wealth, population, political cohesiveness, or literacy in the tiny settlement around Jerusalem to have ever dominated its more developed northern neighbours.


Imperial Israel?

The so-called 'United Monarchy' is found only in the Bible. The 'empire' has no monuments, no inscriptions and no artifacts. Neither David nor Solomon is as much as mentioned in the huge corpus of state records of either Egypt or Assyria. Concedes a 'pro-imperial Israel' historian:

"Solomon ... in the eyes of Israelite historians, marked the apex of Israelite achievement. Curiously, no reference to him or his father David, or their empire in a non-Israelite source is known ... "

Isserlin, The Israelites, p72.

But of course there is nothing 'curious' about a non-existent 'empire' (stretching 'from the Euphrates to Egypt') leaving no evidence of its non-existence. Modern Israel is peppered with 'Solomon's monuments' – but not one of them has any genuine claim to the appellation.


Solomon's Empire?


City of David?

Hebrew hilltop settlements in the 10th century BC would not have been much larger than a soccer field, and archaeology has found not a brick of imperial grandeur.

'Imperial' Jerusalem?

Legendary kings David and Solomon supposedly had an imperial capital in Jerusalem. Yet extensive archaeology in the city reveals Jerusalem was a village in the 10th century BC. In contrast, Megiddo, 'part of the empire.' far to the north, had a palace!

In reality, separate and distinctive chiefdoms developed in Samaria and Judah in the 9th century. They were never a 'united monarchy.' The north was larger, richer and more developed – and soon succumbed to the Assyrians.

Judah, in reaction, produced its pious, biblical fraud, castigating the apostate kings of the 8th - 9th century northern kingdom of 'Israel' and elevated its own importance in an earlier, fantasised empire – ruled from an imperial capital of Jerusalem.

"... in Jerusalem nothing has as yet been brought to light which can be ascribed to Solomon with certainty."

Isserlin, p81.

Where did they get their ideas from?

The Bible actually admits to borrowing from Assyria in 2 Kings 16:

"And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and saw an altar that was at Damascus: and king Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the fashion of the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the workmanship thereof.

And Urijah the priest built an altar according to all that king Ahaz had sent from Damascus: so Urijah the priest made it against king Ahaz came from Damascus." – 2 Kings 16.10,11.

Assyria's Legacy

"Solomon ... began to build the house of the LORD ... And the whole house he overlaid with gold ... And within the oracle he made two cherubims of olive tree, each ten cubits high ... And he overlaid the cherubims with gold ... And he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubims and palm trees and open flowers."

– 1 Kings 6.


'10 cubit winged cherub' –
from Assyria!

palm & floral motif

Palm & floral motif– from Assyrian temple!


Was it this ... or this
... or this?

Lavish Temple?

"Artist's impressions" of that fabulous Temple are commonplace, all based upon the biblical fantasy.

Biblical descriptions of the building and its furniture are precise and vivid (1 Kings 6).

But then they would be – they were a 'wish-list' of 7th/6th century priests. Believe it or not, the 2 pillars had names – Jachin and Boaz.


"The archaeological evidence in Jerusalem for the famous building projects of Solomon is nonexistent.

19th and early 20th century excavations around the Temple Mount in Jerusalem failed to identify even a trace of Solomon's fabled Temple or palace complex."

– Finkelstein, Silberman, p128.


7 years of slave labour?

"First confirmation" of Solomon's Jerusalem Temple?

"Jehoash Tablet"

johoash tablet

Only one problem – manufactured in Jerusalem in 2003!

Forger arrested



Solomon: Emperor with No Clothes

"But he has nothing on!" a little child cried out at last."

– Hans Christian Andersen, The Emperor’s New Clothes

Solomon didn't need to conquer anything – the Empire was his inheritance from his father David. Solomon merely ruled in magnificence, effortlessly receiving and spending an imperial fortune, collecting girlfriends and dispensing wisdom.

Really odd that no one seemed to have noticed. Could it all be a pious fraud, perhaps?


Royal "Chariot city" of Megiddo?

"Solomon's Stables"?but for the fact they're not Solomon's and not stables!

Distinctive storerooms were so identified until a palace structure beneath them came to light. Then "stables" re-attributed to Ahab so that the palace could be identified as "Solomon's." In truth, the palaces date from 9th not 10th century BC and the city of the stables is even later – the 8th century BC.

But were they stables? Nothing relating to horses, cavalry or chariots has ever come to light. "Horse troughs" had drainage holes and were possibly vats for preparing opium, a narcotic for the pain of childbirth and disease.

Solomon is said to have had "a thousand and four hundred" chariots (1 Kings 1.26) – a prodigious army by ancient standards. Yet only five years after the fabled king's death, the same Bible says Pharaoh Shishak successfully invaded Judah and captured its fortified cities with little or no military resistance (2 Chronicles 12).


stables so-called

'Solomon's Stables' – actually 8th century storehouses of Assyrian vassal Jeroboam II.

"Solomon's Gates"? Wishful thinking – 9th century BC, not 10th.

Omri's 9th century BC Megiddo "Solomon's 10th century  BC Megiddo"?? No kidding Reality:
"Solomon's" Megiddo built on top of Omri's!
9th c megiddo

8th c megiddo

9th 8th c megiddo



– Devastated by King Hazael of Aram-Damascus the city was "deserted for almost half a century".

Finkelstein, 204.

In the 1950s, Yigael YadinIsraeli Defence Chief of Staff turned archaeologist – decided that the ruins of Megiddo, Hazor and Gezer were the legendary 'Fortress Cities' of Solomon.

"Our great guide was the Bible" he said. Thus he confirmed the Bible with the Bible.

This was despite an absence of any find at the sites naming Solomon – but a cartouche naming Pharaoh Amenhotep III instead!

Destruction of the sites was attributed to 'Yahweh's instrument' – the 8th century Assyrians. But the Arameans beat them to it, before themselves succumbing to the Assyrians in 811 BC.

Jeroboam II (788 - 747 BC), an Assyrian client king of Israel, rebuilt Megiddo, Gezer and Hazor and presided over the last period of Israel's prosperity. His reign helped to colour the legend of 'Solomon', written in the 7th century.







solomons mines? Solomon's Mines? American rabbi-archaeologist Nelson Glueck so-named the copper mining at Timna (30 km. north of Eilat) in the 1930s. They were, in fact, Egyptian mines, as hieroglyphs and the near-by temple of Hathor attest.

solomons pillars?

Solomon's Pillars? Even the Fundamentalists give up on this one. Geological formation formed over thousands of years.

Solomon's Port of Ezion-Geber? (1 Kings 9:26)

No trace has ever been found of the Red Sea port where Solomon supposedly welcomed the Queen of Sheba. A craggy granite island in the Gulf of Eliat/Aqabah is prime suspect.

queen of sheba

Queen of Sheba?

1 Kings 10 records the unnamed queen's adoration for Solomon; history records nothing of this fairy tale.

"Composite of several centuries"


Biblical "Proverbs of Solomon"?

"Every part of the book bears the mark of foreign influences ... The close connection between the first part of the Thirty Sayings with Egyptian Wisdom ... is only a special instance."

J.C. Rylaarsdam (Peake's Commentary, 444)


Amenhotep III

Egyptian Wisdom:
"Maxims of Amenhotep III"
1382 - 1344 BC


Solomon – "Smarter than All"

Solomon the Builder?

"Monumental structures once attributed to the building activities of Solomon in the cities of Megiddo, Gezer and Hazor have been shown over the years to date from various archaeological periods spanning centuries."

– Rohl, A Test of Time, p34.




Petra: Unlike the fabled kingdom of Solomon, evidence of the Edomites/ Nabataeans is not in doubt.


Ancient trade routes

ancient trade routes

I. Browning (Petra, p14)

Shortly after their deliverance – variously dated between 1550 - 1200 BC – Yahweh’s chosen people are (apparently) given the ten rules to live by. Yet despite their inside track with God (and witnessing all manner of awful manifestations of his power) their kings are certainly no observers of his rules. In the sacred history, even less devout, mediocre kings follow the fabled "Golden Age of Solomon," an era and an empire for which there is not the slightest trace of evidence.

King Solomon and Unnamed Pharaoh No. 6 – his father-in-law!

This Pharaoh, it seems, led an expedition into Palestine and made a wedding gift of a ruined city full of corpses:

"Pharaoh the king of Egypt himself had come up and then captured Gezer and burned it with fire, and the Canaanites dwelling in the city he had killed. So he gave it as a parting gift to his daughter, the wife of Solomon." – 1 Kings 9:16..

The girl was obviously resigned to an open marriage – she shared Solomon with 700 wives and 300 concubines. (1 Kings 11.1) Still, he was a smart fellow. Apparently his wisdom "excelled all the wisdom of Egypt." (1 Kings 4.30) No kidding.

"Hadad the Edomite" and Unnamed Pharaoh No. 7 – who shelters Solomon's enemy

Now here's a curiosity. Hadad receives from this friendly pharaoh a house, bread, land, and marriage into the royal household! Yet it is only the inconsequential pharaonic wife 'Tahpenes' who is named (1 Kings 11:19, 20).


Edom – Occasional refuge and long-term foe of Hebrews

Pioneers of copper working, the Edomite kingdom between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea was often at the receiving end of Israelite aggression (well that's what the Bible says). Apparently, the long-suffering Edomites sheltered David from Saul – before being massacred by him!

Notwithstanding that "every male in Edom had been smitten" (1 Kings 11:15) the Edomites migrated into southern Palestine. 'Edomea' became 'Idumea' and was conquered and Judaised during time of the 'Maccabee' John Hyrcanus.

The Nabataeans moved into the region vacated by the Edomites from the 6th century BC onward. Their city of Petra controlled the lucrative trade routes going north to Damascus and west to Gaza (by-passing any Israelite enclaves). Bands of Israelites probably raided the caravans from time to time – hence the mutual hostility.



Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews (Phoenix Grant, 1987)
Dan Cohn-Sherbok, The Crucified Jew (Harper Collins,1992)
Henry Hart Milman, The History of the Jews (Everyman, 1939)
Josephus, The Jewish War (Penguin, 1959)
Leslie Houlden (Ed.), Judaism & Christianity (Routledge, 1988)
John Romer, Testament (Viking, 1999)
Karen Armstrong, A History of Jerusalem (Harper Collins 1999)
Israel Finkelstein, Neil Silberman, The Bible Unearthed (Simon & Schuster, 2001)
Ahmed Osman, Moses Pharaoh of Egypt (Grafton, 1990)
B.S.J. Isserlin, The Israelites (Thames & Hudson, 1998)



Related articles

The Myth of the Jewish ‘Race’
Egypt and the Patriarchs palpable nonsense
King David The Boy Wonder
Israelites and the Assyrians On the Margins of Empire
Greek & RomanWorld Culture Confounds the Jews


Do you really think it all began with a sanctimonious Jewish wonder-worker, strolling about 1st century Palestine? Prepare to be enlightened.
  Jesus The Imaginary Friend

Still holding to the idea that some sort of holy man lies behind the legend? Better check out...
Godman – Gestation of a Superhero

A closer look at the glib assertion that the Jesus story "got off the ground quickly and spread rapidly."
What DID the Early Christians Believe?

Many currents fed the Jesus myth, like streams and tributaries joining to form a major river.
Sourcing the legend – The Syncretic Heritage of Christianity

Much of the mythology of Christianity is a rehash of an older and even more transparent fabrication – Judaism.
Jew Story – The Way of the Rabbi

Human ingenuity and cunning is matched by mankind's equally monumental credulity and wishful thinking.
Christianity's Fabrication Factory

Church organisation, authority and membership preceded rather than followed the justifying doctrine. As the organisation and its needs changed so has the ‘Testament of God’ adapted accordingly.
Dogma – The Word in all its Savage Glory

From religious policeman to grandee of the church, from beast fighter in Ephesus to beheading in Rome, Paul's story has more holes than a swiss cheese.
 St Paul the Apostle Dead in the water?

Orchestrated by ambitious Christian clerics, a cancer of superstition, fear and brutality was imposed across Europe.
Heart of Darkness – The Criminal History of the Christian Church

The Christian Heaven may have been a vain folly but the Christian Hell has been real enough.
Hell on Earth – A Brutal Superstition Spreads Across the World

Raised to the status of State religion the Christian Church reigned over the destruction of civilization. As the centuries passed religious barbarism grew ever more vicious.
Winter of the World – The Terrible Cost of "Christendom"

For two millennia Christianity's anti-sexual, puritanical doctrines have inflicted untold damage on the mental, emotional and physical lives of countless millions of people.
Those SEXUALLY hung-up Christians – Loved-up for Jesus

With a Jewish father (stern patriarch) and a Christian mother (obsession with guilt and heaven) it is not surprising that Islam grew up a bit of a tartar.
Islam's Desert Storm – 'Christendom' Reaps a Whirlwind

Heaven help us. The richest, most powerful nation in history has a psychotic infatuation with Jay-a-sus the Lawd!
The Christianizing of the Americas





Some fifty articles are now available as a book. For your copy order:





Copyright © 2004 by Kenneth Humphreys.
Copying is freely permitted, provided credit is given to the author and no material herein is sold for profit.